Monday, September 29, 2008

TIM and ITIC 1984-1993

Early in 1984, Bill Birch Reynardson asked Herry to leave P&I and help start a new Miller club for shipagents and shipbrokers, known as TIM (Transport Intermediaries Mutual). Herry was reluctant to do so, knowing very little of that world and enjoying being the manager of Syndicate 1 with its collection of Japanese, Indian, Australian and blue-chip Greek Members. However Bill persisted and Herry left International House in September to move across the road to Creechurch House where the new office was being set up. Prior to his move, he had had a day with Francis Frost, the creator of the concept of TIM, at his house in Suffolk, and been convinced that it could work, and be amusing!

He joined his partner Charles Goldie, who was to be the eminence grise on the project, Malcolm Bird and Geoffery Room, both of whom had been seconded to it and been working on it for some time. Herry's long-time secretary Jo Johns also came with him. Martin-Clark also gave a great deal of moral and practical support and found a friend, Richard Harwood, to set up the IT system, as well as a retired Lloyd's underwriter, Graham Williamson, to help set up the underwriting system. Together they recruited staff, initially Chris Childs and Sid Lock and later Tony Payne and Julia Mavropoulos. Click here for a photo of the staff in late 1984. Their earliest work was on settling the Rules, which they did with the great help of Geoffrey Slater of Coward Chance.

The first major meeting with the future board of ITIC came in October when we travelled to Tarrytown in New York to discuss the plans for the club, its finances and the all-important cover provided under the Rules. Bill Birch Reynardson accompanied Herry and they together met the board, already largely chosen by Francis Frost, to be chaired by Jorgen With-Seidelin from San Francisco. Herry presented the Rules in a long-lasting session and they were approved; and it was agreed that the Club would begin marketing immediately and take Members from 1st April 1985 (though some were given interim cover though a market placement so that they didn't have to renew with their existing insurers).

The Club grew quickly and secured the entries of a number of major players including Inchcape, GAC, Jardines and Clarksons. It was also supported by the Multiport network of agents a well as by the Baltic Exchange.

With his P&I background, Herry was naturally involved with the shipmanagement industry and was able to persuade the major players, including Wallem, Denholm and V Ships to join up. Later he helped to draft the now universally adopted BIMCO shipmanagement and crew management agreements as well as contributing the liability chapter to the LLP book on the subject.

Soon after TIM was established, Tindall Riley, fellow club managers to Thomas Miller, took over the management of an old (1925) club called CISBA, run for many years by solicitors, Hedleys. The revived CISBA provided some competiion to TIM, but was never as successful and, prompted by his partners, particularly David Martin-Clark, Herry set about arranging a merger between the two clubs. This was successfully completed in 1990 and the merged club was renamed ITIC - International Transport Interemediaries Club - with Millers as managers. Several Tindall Riley staff joined the new management company, including Phil Mitchell, who became deputy chairman to Herry.

The board of the club met three times a year, once in Bermuda where the club was registered and the others at various international locations. Click here for a photo of a board meeting in Hamburg in 1991.

ITIC moved from Creechurch House to America House in 1990 and then to International House. Click here for a photo of the staff in the America House office in 1990.

Herry returned to P&I in 1993 and ITIC, which continues to flourish as the largest insurer of marine-related intermediary risks in the world, was successively led by Francis Frost and then by Peregrine Massey.

Hrvoje (Harry) Kačić

Hrvoje Kačić - known universally as Harry - became a friend from my first visit to Yugoslavia with Bill Birch Reynardson in 1969.

Click the heading for photos of Harry and see his entry in Wikipedia here

Venky - S. Ventiteswaran

Venky - as he is universally known, has been a close friend for nearly 40 years. We met in Bombay in 1972, when I was on my first visit to India.

For photos of Venky, click the heading

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Pugh Evans Family History

The Pugh's are an old family with a long Welsh pedigree going back to the Welsh prince Rhodri Mawr, King of Powys in 867. They retained their importance throughout the middle ages and the Pugh’s of Mathavarn (the farm of Mathavarn is to be found north east of Machynlleth) were one of Wales most prominent families for several centuries. It is believed that Henry Tudor’s army camped at Mathavarn en route to battle of Bosworth (1485) and that Dafyd Llwd ap Llewellyn (a Pugh ancestor) sent his son with Henry to fight in the battle. Later in 1644 the house was burnt down by Parliamentary soldiers as the then owner Rowland Pugh, (a former sheriff of both Montgomeryshire and Merionethshire), was a staunch Royalist. Later his grandson John Pugh, a barrister, represented the borough of Montgomery in Parliament from 1702 to 1727. The estate was sold in 1752.

Elizabeth Pugh (1808 – 74) & John Evans (1804 – 74)

Elizabeth (or Eliza, as she was known), daughter of Lewis of Aberystwyth and Elizabeth Griffiths, married John Evans in 1830 and became the matriarch of the subsequent Pugh-Evans family. At the time of their marriage, Eliza was reputedly given a dowry by her parents of 7000 gold sovereigns equal to her weight! John Evans is recorded in one account as being a local schoolmaster when he met and fell in love with Eliza, in another that he was secretary to his future father in law. Both events could be correct, of course. In any event, he apparently became a prosperous merchant who owned a shop in Bridge Street, Aberystwyth, and became town mayor in 1842 and 1844. Having married Eliza, he added his wife's surname to his own, the family thus becoming named Pugh Evans.

John and Eliza Pugh Evans had seven children. Elizabeth (1832-73) married the Rev. Howell Edwards, vicar of Carleon, Gwent, and they had eleven children. John (b.1834) married Ellen Fairclough and became rector of Efenechtyd, Ruthin. They had three children. Then came an infant, Lewis, who was born and died in 1835.

Another Lewis (1837–1908) inherited the Abermade estate from his bachelor uncle on condition that he changed his name from Pugh Evans to Pugh Pugh! More of him below. He was followed by Griffith Humphrey (1840–1902), more of him later also. Then came David Pugh Jones (1842-97), curate of Borth, subsequently rector of Trefonen, Salop, vicar of Carmarthen and rector of Lampeter Velfrey, and finally another daughter, Mary Margaret (b.1845).

In 1843 the family moved to Llanbadarn, when John Pugh Evans acquired the 220 acre Lovesgrove estate from the Powells of Nanteos. It seems that this purchase may have been provided by Eliza’s father as a belated wedding dowry, although it was legally signed over to John. When John died in 1874, the estate passed to their third son, Griffith Humphrey.

Lewis Pugh Pugh (1837 – 1908)

John & Eliza’s second son, the re-named Lewis Pugh Pugh, went to Winchester and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, graduating in 1859. He became a barrister at Lincolns Inn in 1862, was subsequently High Sheriff and Deputy Lieutenant for Cardiganshire, as well as the local MP from 1880 to 1885 and, after a distinguished career in India, became the leading figure at the Calcutta bar and Attorney General of Bengal. He had the house built in 1905 at Cymerau, up behind Glandyfi.

Lewis married Veronica Harriet Hills (1844-1931), a daughter of James Hills (1801-73), who had sailed to India as a young adventurer in 1821 and made his first fortune within seven years. James married Charlotte Marie Antoinette Savi (1813-50), the daughter of a doctor from Elba and his French wife. He became an indigo planter in Bengal, and they had ten children in all.

Apart from Veronica, they included Archibald (1832-96), an indigo planter like his father, James (1833-1919), who won the VC as a young lieutenant during the Indian Mutiny and later became a general and was knighted, John (1834-1902), also a general and knight, George (1835-1902), a colonel, Robert (1837-1909), an indigo broker, Elizabeth (1838-97), who married another knighted general, Charlotte (1840-1916), who married another colonel and VC recipient during the Indian Mutiny, and Charles (1847-1935), another indigo broker.

The youngest child was Emilia Savi (1849-1938), of whom more below. The Hills family doesn’t feature as an extension of the Pugh tribe, apart from the marriages of Veronica and Emilia. Nevertheless, it has to be said that it would feature admirably as the military wing of any family gathering!

Lewis and Veronica had five sons and five daughters. Their eldest son was Lewis Pugh Evans Pugh, born in 1865 in Calcutta, died back in Britain in 1940, who married Emily Adah Sophia Chaplin (1867-1953). They had one son and five daughters. Veronica Charlotte Pugh (1867-1968) married John Frederick (Jack) MacNair (1846-1908), and they had a daughter and two sons. Alice (1868-69) was followed by James Griffith (b.1870).

Then came Archibald John (1871-1923), who married Marion Fraser (Nina) Arundel (1881-1967) and had five sons and one daughter. Ellinor Evans (Nain) (1872-1949) married Ernest William Ormond (1863-1930), and they had three sons).

Another son was Major Herbert Owain Pugh (1874-1954), who married Edith Mary Smith (1879-1943), and they had a son and a daughter. Their son was Major-General Lewis Henry Owain Pugh (1907-81) (see more below). Then came Evelyn Anne (1875-1950), who married Thomas Byrne Sellar (1878-1924) and had two daughters and a son, Roland Anthony (1879-1946), who married Nina Easter Lilian (Paddy) Bowen (1895-1974) and had three daughters and a son, and finally Marjorie (1880-1936), who married Alexander Cox Patterson (1872-1948) and had two sons and two daughters.

Griffith Humphrey Pugh Evans (1840 – 1902)

Meanwhile, John and Elizabeth’s third son, Griffith, went to Lincoln College, Oxford, and also became a barrister and the Judge Advocate of Bengal, as well as a member of the Viceroy’s legislative council. He became a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire in 1896. He inherited Lovesgrove and built a mansion there in 1883. Sir Griffith was also a Deputy Lieutenant and JP for Cardiganshire, and retired to Lovesgrove from India when his health faded. In 1873, he married Emelia Savi (1849-1938), the youngest daughter of James Hills. Griffith and Emelia had three sons and four daughters.

Their eldest son, Griffith (1874-74), was followed by Alice Mary (1875-1955), who married Bernard Richard Townsend Greer (1854-1942) and had two sons and two daughters. Gladys (1877-1955) married Harry Arthur Clifton (d.1947) and had three daughters and two sons. Gruffydd (1879-1946) was followed by Lewis (1881-1962). More on him below.

Then came Betha Millicent (Betty) (1882-1954), James John Pugh (Jimjack) (1885-1954), who married Viola Murielle Robinson (1899-1983) and had two sons, and Gwyneth Veronica (1888-1951).

Griffith and Emelia’s second son, Brigadier Lewis Pugh Evans (1881-1962), inherited the Lovesgrove estate in turn. After serving in the Boer War as a lieutenant in the Black Watch, he served on the Western Front during WW1, initially as a company commander, then brigade major, during which time he was awarded the DSO. In 1917 he was appointed acting Lieutenant-Colonel with the Lincolnshire Regiment, and on 4th October was awarded the Victoria Cross for “conspicuous bravery and leadership” during the fighting at Reutel and Polygon Wood near Ypres. He was severely wounded twice during the battle, and was invalided home to England. In January 1918 he returned to France with the Black Watch, and was awarded a second DSO in April for action near Givenchy. He finished the war as a temporary Brigadier.

After the war, he married Margaret Dorothea Seagrave Vaughan-Pryce-Rice, who tragically died of flu in 1921. Lewis retired from the army in 1938, and subsequently held a number of local appointments, including again Deputy Lieutenant and JP for Cardiganshire. He died of a heart attack at Paddington Station in 1962 and is buried in the family plot at Llanbadarn, where he had been a churchwarden for many years.

Lewis Henry Owain Pugh (1907- 81)

Finally in the Pugh Evans branch of the family is another Lewis Pugh, grandson of Lewis Pugh Pugh of Bengal etc, and son of Major Herbert Pugh (see above). Lewis was another professional soldier, commissioned into the Royal Horse Artillery. After serving in Germany between the wars and on the North West Frontier of India, he answered an advertisement for men with knowledge of India to join the Special Branch Intelligence Department of the Bengal Police.

At the outbreak of WW2 he returned to the army, and by 1943 was Director of Country Sections with SOE’s Force 136, one of their most successful units, based in Calcutta and specialised in placing agents and trained saboteurs deep behind enemy lines inside Burma and Malaya.

On 9th March 1943 he led what came to be known as the Last Action of the Calcutta Light Horse. This regiment was raised in 1872 and formed part of the cavalry reserve of the British Indian Army. Inactive since the Boer War, their last action was against a German merchant ship transmitting Allied positions to U-boats from the Mormugao harbour in Portugal's neutral territory of Goa. The membership was largely made up of elderly businessmen and planters. The operation was kept covert, to prevent claims of contravening Portugal’s neutrality, and was not confessed until 1978, thirty-five years after it took place.

At the time Lewis Pugh was a Lieutenant Colonel, but he subsequently became a Major General with a CB, CBE and three DSOs. This wartime incident was published in 1978 as “Boarding Party – The Last Action of the Calcutta Light Horse”, and was subsequently portrayed in a 1980 war film, “Sea Wolves”, starring Gregory Peck as Pugh, and including a host of other well known names. As the film makers noted, during the first 11 days of March 1943, U-boats sank 12 Allied ships in the Indian Ocean. After the Light Horse raid on Goa, only one ship was lost in the remainder of the month.

The General retired to the family estate from the Army in 1961, lived in the house and developed its gardens until 1978, and died in 1981. A stained glass window in Eglwysfach church commemorates members of the Pugh family of Voelas and Cymerau. The property has now been converted into self-catering holiday accommodation.

Extracted from notes by Philip Pughe-Morgan

Col Archie Pugh - Comment from Abhay Datar in India

Dear Mr. Lawford,

I recently came across your blog on your grandfather, Colonel A J Pugh. I had been looking out for information on Col. Pugh since I read his oral evidence to the Franchise Committee of 1918-19. There he advocated joint electorates for Indians and Europeans in order to build racial harmony and improve relations among the two communities.

This proposal was quite fascinating and stood apart from the evidence from the other representatives of the European community in India. Furthermore, Col Pugh had also initiated the presentation of a joint address by Europeans and Indians of Calcutta to Edwin Montague, the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Chelmsford the Viceroy in 1917 asking for sub-provincial autonomy- one finds this aspect to be a precursor of the linguistic reorganization of states in India of 1956. What fascinates me the most is that Col Pugh made this proposal when he was connected with the upper echelons of the Raj, his father being the Attorney General of Bengal and father-in-law the Home Member under Lord Curzon.

Many thanks for putting up the information on the Net.

Yours sincerely
Abhay Datar
Pune, India 22nd November 2008

Summary of Colonel A J Pugh’s Evidence before the Franchise Committee of 1918-19

The Franchise Committee headed by Lord Southborough had been set up as per the Report on Indian Constitutional Reforms popularly known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. The Committee toured the country examining witnesses.

Most non-official European witnesses were keen to have separate electorates so that they could have a say in the new expanded provincial legislatures, which were to exercise significant control over many departments of the government. It is here that Colonel A J Pugh’s evidence stand out. He ruled out purely European electorates as also the previous method of protecting non-official European interests – indirect elections by the European dominated Chambers of Commerce. Colonel Pugh advocated joint electorates for Europeans and Indians in the new Bengal Legislative Council. Colonel Pugh pointed out that non-official Europeans to have a say in the government in the changed circumstances only through constant association with Indians. Joint electorates with multi-member constituencies would provide the best opportunities for this. He rejected representation through the commercial bodies on two grounds; these bodies were not wholly European and secondly British interests were not confined, to use his words 'to jute and tea'. Furthermore, these European members would serve as the link between India and Britain.

But he does not quite make it clear whether this was to be done through a guaranteed minimum of seats reserved for the European candidates. But he did ask for certain safeguards. The candidates had to be members of representative community associations like the European Association and had to receive at least 100 votes from the European community. Non-official pure Europeans were to have 50 seats in the new Legislative Council – 30 elected non-officials and 20 nominated officials out of the total of 150, as per Colonel Pugh’s proposal. This might seem excessive but then in 1918 a meeting of all the non-official members of the then Bengal Legislative Council, including both Indians and Europeans, had agreed that the proportion of European representation should be maintained in a future Council. Pugh argued further that the Europeans’ representation should not be based on mere numbers but on the strength of their interests in the country.

But he did retreat a bit by saying that if adequate representation of non-official Europeans was not possible, then he would not advocate any grant of self-rule to India. This might sound strange given his previous arguments but then many individuals were opposed to the very principle of self-rule. Colonel Pugh’s idea of non-official Europeans and Indians running the government under the Empire certainly did not come true. But his liberality in advocating joint electorates needs to be remembered as a corrective to the uniform picture of racial difference and superiority advocated by the non-official community.
Abhay Datar
Pune, India 25nd November 2008

Thursday, September 18, 2008

Herry's Brief Bio for a Southampton Reunion

Herry was born at Litchfield and brought up in the Meon Valley, about fifteen miles from Southampton. Although he has lived in London for many years, he keeps many links to Hampshire - and to the law faculty which now, in the Institute of Maritime Law, has the premier maritime law school in the country and many think, the world . After graduation in 1967 he started work for a City firm, Thomas Miller which happens to be one of the five founding firms of the Institute. He has a number of friends among the faculty as a result.

Millers manage a number of mutual insurance 'clubs', including the Bar Mutual, which insures all the barristers in England and Wales, and the Solicitors' Club, SIMIA, which takes a line on many solicitors' PI insurances. Herry worked mainly for the largest club, the UK P&I Club until 1984, dealing with marine liability claims and handling some fascinating casualties. He travelled constantly to talk to shipowners, lawyers and the like - initially to Yugoslavia and India and then to the Middle East (eg Saudi and Iraq) and then to Japan and Asia generally. He also joined the TA - and spend many tough but happy weekends on the moors and mountains. During the early years also he married Prue Watson in Sydney and built a house on his parents' farm at Meonstoke, where they lived until they were divorced in 1982 and Prue returned to Sydney with their three children. Fortunately they have remained on good terms, with Richard Smith, one of his friends from Southampton, handling Prue's side of the divorce proceedings.

Herry became a partner of Millers in 1982 and in 1984 the founding chairman of a new 'club' for shipbrokers, agents and managers now called ITIC and had great fun helping to build that up to be the largest such insurer (of marine intermediary professional indemnity risks) in the world.

In 1993 he moved back to the UK P&I Club and a sister organisation, known as the TT Club taking various management positions including chairman of Thomas Miller (Asia Pacific). In that capacity he spent eight years commuting from London to Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and China - and of course spending no little time in Australia. He retired in May 2006 after 39 years with Millers - but then took on a consultancy with a firm of City solicitors - Clyde & Co - and continued to travel in Asia. He still undertakes work for Thomas Miller in places like India and China, where long relationships are all-important. He will have just returned from a trip to both places when we meet, but he tries to keep his work to a minimum.

Herry now has four children - three of them still in Australia - two of whom are married and one has his quarter-Chinese granddaughter! His youngest daughter is 18 and has just started at King's College reading law. In keeping with his love of Asia, his second wife of many years is Japanese. The two families continue to be close, and last year spent Christmas together in Sydney

Herry loves reading, photography, travel, food and wine, walking and keeping up with family and friends. He is a Liveryman of the Drapers’ Company. He is also a director of companies including a Chinese/British joint venture and is a visiting professor at Shanghai Maritime University

He's fairly high-tech...and is all over the internet. He will be very happy to see his law school friends again, but can't guarantee to recognise all of them - any more than they will recognise him!

Sunday, September 14, 2008

Piers Lawford

My brother Piers was born on 9th May 1947 at a nursing home in Sevenoaks. He lived with the family at Danegate until 1950 when we moved to Stocks Farm. Thereafter we grew up together on the farm, playing together and 'ragging' constantly. Piers followed Fuff and I to St Ronan's in 1955 and then in 1960 went on to Stowe where he excelled at cricket and long distance running, and became a good musician and singer, playing the organ as well as the piano.

Leaving Stowe he studied at the London Hospital for his medical exams, living with me at 10 Shouldham St, where he managed to install a piano in the back bedroom.

On qualifying, he worked at Northwood and Poole Hospital before going up to spend five years at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary. In 1976 he married Margaret Lammond, a nursing sister at the hospital and shortly afterwards took a jobat the Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital, and moving to Coventry. In 1982 Mhairi was born.
St Ronan's 1955-60
Stowe 1961-66
Royal London Hospital 1967 -
Warwickshire and Coventry General
Married Margaret Lammond 25th April 1981
Married in Brechin Cathedral 25th April 1981
Nursing sister in the Thoracic Ward, Foresterhill, Aberdeen
Given away by uncle Roderick Coutts
Bridesmaids Sheila and Radha
Herry best man
Fuff was usher with John Lindsay
Mhairi 1982

Click the heading for some photos of Piers

Thursday, September 11, 2008

Luxmoore Family History

Annette Pugh and Arthur Luxmoore's wedding at Litchfield on 20th March 1935. Photo taken in the garden at Dunley.

Left to right: Katie Luxmoore, James (Jimmie) Pugh, Launcelot Luxmoore (Arhur's father), Nanny (to the Pugh children), Coryndon Luxmoore (Arthur's brother and best man), Constance Luxmoore (Arthur's mother), Arthur Noble Luxmoore, Annette Rosemary Pugh, Archie Pugh, Auriol Powell Edwards, Hubert Luxmoore, Nina (Lady Herbert), Sir Alfred Herbert, Ivor Pugh, Imogen Precott. In font: David Pugh and Michael Pugh.

For more photos of the wedding and Arthur Luxmoore, click here

For Fairfax Luxmoore, click here

The Luxmoore family - originally Luk's or Luke's Moor - originated in Devon, on the western side of Dartmoor. Henry Luxmoore (born 1695) and his immediate descendants lived at Oakhampton where they held the living.

Click here for more Luxmoore family photos

Return to Archive Index
Return to Wing-Commander Arthur Luxmoore 
Return to Fairfax Luxmoore
Retun to Dunley
Return to Litchfield

Sunday, September 07, 2008

Col AJ Pugh 1871-1923

Col Archie Pugh (standing, in light suit) with colleagues in Calcutta. He was Colonel of the Calcutta Light Horse from 1912 - 1922 and founded Pugh & Co, Solicitors in Calcutta. Click the heading for some more photos

Col Archie John Pugh CBE, VD, Herry's grandfather, was born on 3rd December 1871 in Wales and died at Cwmcoedwig, Llanfarian on 15th June 1923. He was educated at Winchester and married Marian 'Nina" Fraser Arundel, second daughter of Sir Arundel Tagg Arundel in Calcutta on 28th December 1894.

The wedding of Lt-Col Archie Pugh and Nina Arundel in Calcutta Cathedral in December 1904. For the names of those appearing in this photo, click here

His father was Lewis Pugh Pugh (1837- 1908) JD, DL, MP of Abermad and Cymmerau who was educated at Winchester and Corpus Christi, Oxford and and Member of Parliament from 1880 to 1885. He married Veronica Harriet Hills (1844-1931), daughter of James Hills of Neechandapore and Charlotte Marie Savi, in Calcutta Cathedral and became Attorney-General of Bengal during Lord Curzon's Viceroyalty. Lewis Pugh was born Lewis Pugh Evans, but took the surname Pugh in 1868 instead of Evans, when he inherited the estate (Abermad) of his great uncle. He called himself Pugh Lewis Pugh and his family called him 'Puff-Puff'

Below is Col Archie Pugh's obituary from the Indian Press

Death of Col AJ Pugh
Prominent Calcutta Man

Many in Calcutta and outside will learn with regret of the death in Wales on 15th June of Col AJ Pugh, CBE, OBE, VD, ADC, MLC
As a member of the Bengal Legislative Council, a Commissioner of the Calcutta Corporation and an enthusiastic officer of the Calcutta Light Horse, Col Pugh had done much for the public life of Calcutta, and his influence will be missed in many spheres.

Colonel Pugh, was the son of the late Mr Lewis Pugh Pugh, was born on December 2nd 1871, and was educated at Winchester School. Coming to India in December 1889, he was enrolled as an attorney at the Calcutta High Court on January 9th 1895. He early identified himself with the Calcutta Light Horse, with which body he was connected for 33 years, only retiring from the position of Commandant last year.

Col Pugh, who was awarded the Volunteer Long Service Medal and the Volunteer Officers' Decoration (he served as a volunteer for 32 years) on assuming command of the Calcutta Light Horse in 1912 was responsible for not a few improvements in the Corps, one of which was the innovation of camps out of Calcutta - at Sonapur, Dum Dum, Maduhpur, Simultalla and Jasidih - in place of those formerly held on the Maidan.

With the introduction of the India Defence Force Act, Col Pugh was asked to continue his command of the Corps. He was also appointed military representative on the Exemption Tribunal, a post which was anything but a popular one. Nevertheless, he discharged the duties assigned to it so satisfactorily that he was subsequently awarded the OBE.

Continuing his command of the Corps after the introduction of the Auxiliary Force Act, Col Pugh latterly did good work in securing remounts and also in encouraging recruiting for the Corps.

As a Commissioner of many years standing, Col Pugh's services have been highly appreciated both by the European and Indian communities. His speeches were invariably based on common sense and a constant desire to serve the best interests of the community as a whole. He was a member of several committees connected with the Corporation, and his advice was always received with respect. [He gave an address to Lord Carmichael's Committee in 1914 which survives]

His membership of the Bengal Legislative Council (as a representative of one of the European Constituency) allowed Col Pugh to put to practical use his deep interest in, and wide knowledge of, the Reforms. He was asked to give evidence before the Franchise Committee of the Houses of Parliament [for a most interesting note of the evidence he gave and the context in which it was given, see an e-mail from an Indian political scientist, Abhay Datar wrting in November 2008].

He was head of the well-known firm of Pugh & Co, solicitors.
Obituary from the Indian Press 21st June 1923 (with photo)
A photo of the silver salver presented to Col AJ Pugh by the members of the Calcutta Light Horse in 1922 is

The Inscription reads:
Presented By Members of
Calcutta Light Horse
Col AJ Pugh CBE, VD
as a token of esteem
and appreciation of his great service
and devotion to the Regiment
1890 to 1922

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Return to Marion Arundel (Nina) Pugh (Lady Herbert)
Return to Annette Lawford
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Significant Business People

John Tubb (2002)

Monday, September 01, 2008

Sir Alfred Herbert 1866 - 1957

Sir Alfred Herbert KBE

Alfred Herbert was born in 1866, the son of a farmer, William Herbert. His father, in addition to farming at Whetstone Gorse, owned a town house in Leicester, to which the family retired in winter.

Alfred Herbert was educated at Stoneygate, a local private school where he excelled at English, science and divinity, and was expected to go on to university or into the church until he met up with an old school friend William Hubbard, who worked on a lathe at Joseph Jessop's Engineering Co in Leicester. Herbert was fascinated by what the small lathe produced, so he persuaded his father to let him follow his friend's example. Subsequently he became an apprentice at Jessops and thereafter joined Coles and Mathews, a firm of engineers in The Butts, Coventry. When Matthews retired, Herbert and Hubbard bought the company in partnership with help from their fathers. The partnership was dissolved in two years and Alfred founded the company which bore his name, Alfred Herbert Ltd which he ran until his death in 1957.

Alfred’s older brother William Henry Herbert joined forces with William Hillman in 1875 as Hillman and Herbert and formed the Premier Cycle Company to make bicycles. Later they formed the Automachinery Company which included Alfred on the Board of Directors.

Sir Alfred was married three times, first to Ellen Ryley, who bore him four daughters, but died in 1918. He then married Florence Pepper, who had a been matron at Coventry Hospital. Sadly, she too died in 1930, and in 1933 he married for the third time, Nina Pugh (nee Arundel), my grandmother. Hence we called him 'Step'.

Sir Alfred's life was divided between his factory in Coventry and his estate at Dunley, which he acquired in 1917. A brilliant and kindly man, he and the two successive Lady Herberts used to travel up to Coventry every week and stay in a flat over the works (except for a time during the Second World War when he and Nina were persuaded to stay with his granddaughter June Vapenik at her flat in Leamington Spa).

He worked to the end of his life, never formally retiring, until he died taking sherry at his friend Tommy Sopwith's house in Hampshire on 26th May 1957, at the age of 90. He was buried at Litchfield, the church which he attended from Dunley, and a memorial service was held for him in Coventry Cathedral, attended by over 2000 people.

Click the heading for some photos of Sir Alfred

The following is extracted from the brochure produced for the opening of the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum in 1960.

Alfred Herbert was born on 5th September 1866, the son of a Leicestershire farmer. After attending Stoneygate School in Leicester, he was apprenticed to Jessop and Sons after which he came to Coventry to take up the position of works manager in a firm of jobbing and general engineers, Coles & Matthews, in The Butts.

A year later the partnership was dissolved and the business was offered to Alfred, who was 22 years of age at the time. He went into partnership with an old school-friend, WS Hubbard and with their fathers' supplying the necessary capital, formed the firm of Herbert and Hubbard.

Hubbard was a clever mechanic with considerable inventive genius, so they decided to make machine tools, the first of which was a very ingenious machine for picking, sorting and storing pills. Machine tools suitable for use in the rapidly expanding bicycle industry were produced and quickly added to the firm's growing reputation. After two or three years Herbert and Hubbard dissolved their partnership and in 1894 a small company, Alfred Herbert Ltd was formed in which Alfred Herbert held the majority of shares. The new firm rapidly forged ahead with the production of machine tools of all kinds; agencies were taken on and foreign branches established all over the world.

Soon after the outbreak of the First World War, Alfred Herbert was appointed Deputy Director and then Controller of Machine Tools at the Ministry of Munitions, for which service he was awarded a knighthood.

During his lifetime Sir Alfred Herbert developed from very small beginnings, the largest machine tool works in the world.

Not that he is only remembered as one of the greatest industrialists of his day; he was also great in another sphere, as benefactor to his adopted city of Coventry.

Among his many gifts to the city were £2000 in 1934 to equip a ward in the Warwickshire and Coventry Hospital for wounded soldiers, two acres of land in The Butts for a park and playground; Lady Herbert's Homes and Garden as a memorial to Lady Florence Herbert in the centre of the city, Tower Thorpe Manor [sp], which he gave to Coventry as a childrens' home, £10,000 to the hospital and the loan of a like sum free of interest; a covenant with the Cathedral Reconstruction Committee whereby it received £25,000 over seven years; and £200,000 for the provision of the Art Gallery and Museum which is being opened today. This latter sum, with the accumulation of interest, has meant a contribution of nearly £275,000 to the cost of the buildings.

In addition to his public gifts, his private gifts were also many; such as the £25,000 he disbursed amongst his employees to celebrate his 90th birthday.

His death on 2nd May 1957 brought to a close a life of immense achievement and generosity. He was a natural leader of men and carried to the present age the Victorian virtues of thrift and industry.

He will long be remembered not only for his public gifts for which the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum will stand as a most fitting monument, but also for the unfailing courtesy and kindness he extended to all those who worked for him.

The world lost one of its greatest engineering geniuses, Coventry lost a true and loyal friend and Alfred Herbert Ltd its founder and father.'

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